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Ions in the areas are determined independently and therefore the WaldIons in the areas are determined independently and therefore the Wald test W = (D1 - D2 )2 Var(D1 ) + Var(D2 )2 is asymptotically 1 distributed. The Wald test based on, e.g., the density-corrected estimates is defined asWbc =(Ddc,1 - Ddc,2 )2 , Varb (Ddc,1 ) + Varb (Ddc,2 )whereas the bootstrap P -values for the Wpb test ar