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Lso been used as to characterize -lactamases. Class A enzymes (known primarily as penicillinases) tend to hydrolyze penicillins over cephalosporins as substrates although many variants may significantly hydrolyze broad-spectrum cephalosporins and also a few carbapenems [13, 14]. Most class A -lactamases are inhibited by the clinically-available -lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, tazob